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  1. Free download British standard BS Part 2 - Metric units
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  4. BS 449-2: 1969 pdf free download

BRITISH STANDARD BS Incorporating amendments issued January (AMD ), May (AMD ), December (AMD ). BRITISH STANDARD BS Incorporating amendments issued January (AMD ), May (AMD ), December BS - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. BS

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Bs 449 Pdf

Template: Columns BS User Notes. Page Section 1. INTRODUCTION. ColumnsBS is an Excel Spreadsheet template for finding Safe Loads on steel . Rivets. Rivets shall conform to the requirements of BS for dimensions. Download book PDF · Structural Detailing pp | Cite as. The Detailing of Structural Steelwork According to BS The Use of Structural Steel in Building. a. Rivets. Rivets shall conform to the requirements of BS for dimensions.

This document has been replaced. View the most recent version. DRM is included at the request of the publisher, as it helps them protect their copyright by restricting file sharing. Visit FileOpen to see the full list. What you can do with a Secure PDF: BS EN

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Helen Soremekun. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Bs structural steel in building 1. Metric units UDC BS Date of issue Comments November Indicated by a sideline in the margin 3. Definitions 2 Definitions 1 Chapter 2.

Materials 3 Structural steel and electrodes 2 4 Other materials 3 5 Standard dimensions 3 Chapter 3. Loads 6 Dead loads and imposed loads 3 7 Dynamic loads 3 8 Temperature range 4 Chapter 4. Design and details of construction A. General 9 Steel framework 4 10 Resistance to horizontal forces 5 11 Foundations 6 12 Minimum thickness of metal 7 13 Stresses due to wind forces 7 14 Combined stresses 7 15 Deflection of beams 8 16 Overhang of walls 8 17 Sectional areas 8 18 Separators and diaphragms 9 B.

Design of members subject to bending 19 Bending stresses beams other than plate girders 9 20 Bending stresses plate girders 17 21 Bending stresses cased beams 22 22 Bearing stress 22 23 Shear stresses 22 24 Effective span of beams 23 25 Maximum slenderness ratio of compression flanges 23 26 Effective length of compression flanges for beams and girders 27 27 Beams with solid webs including plate girders 30 28 Web stiffeners 32 29 Filler joists 34 C.

Design of compression members 30 Axial stresses in struts 35 31 Effective length of compression members 40 32 Design details 40 33 Maximum slenderness ratio of struts 41 34 Eccentricity for stanchions and solid columns 41 35 Lacing and battening 41 36 Battened compression members 43 37 Compression members composed of two components back-to-back 44 38 Stanchion and column bases 44 4.

Design of tension members 41 Axial stresses in tension 45 42 Tensile stresses for angles, tees and channels 46 E. Constructional details 43 Braced frames and trusses 46 44 Roof trusses 46 45 Purlins 47 46 Side and end sheeting rails 47 47 Steel castings 47 48 Connections 47 49 Lug angles 48 F.

Riveting and bolting 50 Allowable stresses in rivets and bolts 48 51 Rivets and riveting 49 52 Bolts and bolting 50 G. Welds and welding 53 Allowable stresses in welds 50 54 Design of welds 53 Chapter 5.

Fabrication and erection 55 Inspection 53 H. Work off site 56 Straightness 53 57 Clearances 53 58 Cutting 54 59 Holing 54 60 Assembly 54 61 Riveting 54 62 Bolting 55 63 Welding 55 64 Qualification and testing of welders 55 65 Flattened ends of tubes 55 66 Machining of butts, caps and bases 55 67 Slab bases and caps 55 68 Solid round steel columns 55 69 Marking 55 70 Painting 55 J.

Work on site 71 Plant and equipment 56 72 Storing and handling 56 73 Setting out 56 74 Security during erection 56 75 Painting after erection 56 76 Bedding of stanchion bases, bedding and encasing of grillage beams and bearings of beams and girders 56 Chapter 6.

Tests for use in the approval of welders 77 Tests 57 5. Continuous intermediate lengths or top lengths of stanchions 60 Figure 7 — Effective length of stanchions: Bottom length of stanchions 61 Figure 8 — Effective length of stanchions: Continuous intermediate lengths or top lengths of stanchions 62 Figure 9 — Effective length of stanchions: Bottom length of stanchions 63 Figure 10 — Effective length of stanchions: Discontinuous stanchions 64 Figure 11 — Effective length of stanchions: Continuous intermediate length 65 Figure 12 — Effective length of stanchions: Bottom length single storey 66 Figure 13 — Effective length of stanchions: Bottom lengths 67 Figure 14 — Effective length of stanchions: Stanchions with tie beams attached to one flange 68 Figure 15 — Effective length of stanchions: Side stanchions in single storey building 69 Figure 16 — Effective length of stanchions: Side stanchions in single storey building with crane gantry 70 Figure 17 — Effective length of stanchions: Side stanchions in single storey building with crane gantry 71 Figure 18 — Effective length of stanchions: Side stanchion in single storey building with crane gantry 72 Figure 19 — Effective length of stanchions: Side stanchions in single storey building with crane gantry 73 Figure 20 — Effective length of stanchions: Valley stanchion in single storey building with crane gantries 74 6.

It was reset and reprinted in February incorporating amendments Nos. When a programme of Codes of Practice for Buildings was drawn up in under the aegis of the Ministry of Works, a Code of Practice for the structural use of steel in buildings was included in a series for all types of building construction: Much of the information given in BS and in CP was the same and with the formation of the Codes of Practice Council within BSI it was decided that the two documents should be amalgamated and issued as a single publication under the main reference BS Part 2 of this standard has been prepared, in accordance with the change to the metric system in the construction industry, giving values in terms of SI units.

The values given in Part 2 represent the equivalents of the values in imperial units in BS Although the values are not exact equivalents of the imperial ones, Part 2 does not constitute a technical revision of the standard and is substantially similar in content to BS Amendment Slip No.

This amendment slip also noted the future insertion of grade 55 steel. Part 2 has now been expanded to include the use of this steel, and also includes an amendment to Subclause 3 a. This subclause on brittle fracture has now been further extended to be in parity with BS Because of the extent of the amendments made necessary by the publication of BS it has been found more practical to reissue the imperial edition of this standard incorporating these amendments rather than to publish a further amendment slip.

For the purpose of compliance with this standard designers may use the values given in either BS A revision of this standard is currently in hand and the revised standard will be written in terms of SI units only. Users of this British Standard should satisfy themselves that effective compliance is secured with local bye-laws and regulations and, for insurance purposes, with any requirements of insurance companies. The attention of users is also called to the importance of making provision, where necessary, for water, gas, electricity and other services, having particular regard to condition 5 in Clause 21 for cased beams and to condition 4 in Subclause 30 b for cased struts.

Free download British standard BS Part 2 - Metric units

This standard reflects the revised increased yield strength of grade 43 steels included in BS It has been assumed in the drafting of this British Standard that the execution of its provisions is entrusted to appropriately qualified and experienced people, for whose guidance it has been prepared, and that construction and supervision is carried out by capable and experienced organizations.

While the stresses and other requirements are to be regarded as limiting values, the purpose in design should be to reach these limits in as many parts of the structure as possible and to adopt a layout such that maximum structural efficiency is attained for a minimum use of steel. Careful consideration should therefore be given to the semi-rigid basis and fully rigid basis of design. A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract.

Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to vi, pages 1 to 78, an inside back cover and a back cover. This standard has been updated see copyright date and may have had amendments incorporated.

This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. The use in building of cold formed sections in light gauge plate, sheet and strip steel 6 mm thick and under is dealt with in Addendum No. The provisions of this standard are not deemed to apply to transmission towers and farm buildings; nor to structures which are designed on an experimental basis, except in so far as provided by Clause 9 c and Appendix A.

Chapter 1. Definitions 2 Definitions For the purposes of this British Standard the following definitions apply: It may include any retaining or other wall, based upon the ground, of sufficient strength and stability to carry its own weight together with the loads and forces imposed upon it high strength friction grip bolts high strength friction grip bolts are bolts of high tensile steel, used in conjunction with high strength nuts and hardened steel washers, which are tightened to a pre-determined shank tension in order that the clamping action thus afforded will transfer loads in the connected members by friction between the parts in contact and not by shear or bearing in the bolts See footnote to Clause Materials 3 Structural steel and electrodes a Structural steel1 i All structural steel used in building coming within the purview of this British Standard shall, before fabrication, comply with grade 43, 50 or 55 of BS and with such additional requirements as may be given in Subclauses ii to vi below.

For grades 43B and 50B, option B. Grade Section, plates flats and bars Wide flats 43A 25 mm 25 mm 43B 30 mm 30 mm 43C 60 mm 50 mm 43D mm 50 mm 50A 20 mm 20 mm 50B 25 mm 25 mm 50C 45 mm 45 mm 50D mm 50 mm Sections, flats and bars 19 mm Plates, wide flats and circular hollow sections 25 mm Rectangular hollow sections 16 mm grade 43 0.

Where high tensile steel is used for rivets, steps shall be taken to ensure that the rivets are so manufactured that they can be driven and the heads formed satisfactorily; and that the physical properties of the steel are not impaired.

Plain washers shall be made of steel. Taper or other specially shaped washers shall be made of steel or malleable cast iron. Metric series. Where an appropriate British Standard for a particular material exists the material shall also comply with that British Standard, except where it may conflict with, or differ from, the requirements of any relevant bye-law or regulation.

The dimensions or form and the weight, tolerances, etc. Chapter 3. Loads 6 Dead loads and imposed loads Reference should be made to CP 3: In order to ensure due economy in design the Engineer shall ascertain as accurately as possible the appropriate dynamic increase for all members affected.

For crane gantry girders the following allowances shall be deemed to cover all forces set up by vibration, shock from slipping of slings, kinetic action of acceleration and retardation, impact of wheel loads and skew loads due to travelling: Values for cranes for loading class Q3 and Q4 as defined in BS shall be established in consultation with the crane manufacturer.

This force shall be taken into account when considering the lateral rigidity of the rails and their fastenings. Provided that both gantry girders supporting the crane are similar, this horizontal force may be assumed to be shared equally between the two supporting girders.

ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts. ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts. ISO metric black cup and countersunk head bolts and screws with hexagon nuts. The forces specified in 2 , 3 or 4 above shall be considered as acting at the rail level and being appropriately transmitted to the supporting systems. Gantry girders and their supporting structures shall be designed on the assumption that the horizontal forces 2 , 3 and 4 are alternatives which do not act at the same time but that each of them may act at the same time as the vertical load.

An increase of 10 per cent on the allowable stresses specified in this standard shall be allowable for the combination of loadings 1 and 2 , 3 or 4 above in respect of the design of the gantry girders and supporting structures. Your shopping cart is empty. Log in or create account. BS View all product details. Full Description Deals with the use in building of hot rolled sections, plates and normalized tubular shapes, the steel of which complies with the requirements of BS Cross References: Chapter IV CP 3: Chapter V Addendum No.

Incorporates the following: How to download To upgrade your document to include the redline version: Add the document to your cart. Select the Upgrade with Redline option in the cart pop up. Add the PDF to your cart. Select your desired number of users. Use Redlines To: Identify updates in minutes, not hours Effortlessly implement changes to procedures, equipment and products Save time and resources When you download Techstreet redlines, you receive TWO documents -- the clean, active version of the standard and the redline version.

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Other Browser: The calculated bearing stress on the net projected area of contact shall not exceed the values of pb given in Table 9. The effective span of a beam shall be taken as the For webs which have tongue plates or which are length between the centres of the supports, except reinforced by additional plates for the provision of 3 in Subclause 9 b and where, [see Subclause 27 a iv ], the maximum shear shall under Clause 34, the point of application of the be calculated and the beam designed so as to satisfy reaction is taken as eccentric to the support, when it both a and b above.

Where The ratio of the effective length l of the compression tongue plates Figure 1 having a thickness flange to the appropriate radius of gyration shall not of not less than twice the thickness of the exceed NOTE 1 For the minimum thickness of web plates and the design of web stiffeners, see Clauses 27 and NOTE 2 The allowable stresses given in the tables of Clause 23 apply provided any reduction of the web cross section is due only to rivet holes, etc.

Where large apertures are cut in the web a special analysis shall be made to ensure that the stresses laid down in this standard are not exceeded. Furthermore, the slab construction shall be capable Where the conditions of restraint at the support of resisting this lateral force in lateral flexure and correspond to Cases 4, 5 and 6 above, the effective shear.

The product of the between the number of points at which the restraint thickness of the web and the full depth of the members occur. In the case of a series of latticed beams, girders or For webs of rolled beams and channels. The roof trusses which are connected together by the product of the thickness of the web and the full same system of restraint members, the sum of the depth of the section.

In riveted or bolted construction, flange i Solid web girders should preferably be angles shall form as large a part of the area of the proportioned on the basis of the moment of flange as practicable preferably not less than one inertia of the gross cross section with the neutral third and the number of flange plates shall be kept axis taken at the centroid of that section, but it to a minimum.

In arriving at the maximum flexural at least one plate of the top flange shall extend the stresses, the stresses calculated on the basis of full length of the girder, unless the top edge of the the gross moment of inertia shall be increased in web is machined flush with the flange angles. For this purpose the flange flange, tacking rivets shall be provided, if necessary, sectional area in riveted or bolted construction to comply with the requirements of Subclauses 51 d shall be taken to be that of the flange plate, flange and e.

The outstand of flange plates, i. Grade Type of Flange Max. The thickness Channel sections Compression t of the web plate shall be not less than the or plates with or tension following: Flange joints should preferably and not be located at points of maximum stress.

There 4 Where there is also a horizontal stiffener at the shall be enough rivets or welds on each side of the neutral axis of the girder: In welded construction flange plates and shall be jointed by butt welds wherever possible.

These butt welds shall develop the full strength of the plates. In welded construction where the web is panel exceed t. For girders in exposed such vertical loads are resisted by bearing between situations and which have no flange plates, the top the flange and web. The gap between web The above expression for slenderness ratio plates and flange plates shall be kept to a minimum, assumes that the web acts as a strut fixed in and for fillet welds shall not exceed 1 mm at any position and direction at its ends and shall point before welding.

Splices in the webs of plate buckling value if the following conditions are girders and rolled sections used as beams shall be met: Where additional plates are 2 Rotation of the loaded flange relative to the provided to augment the strength of the web, they web is prevented.

The proportion of shear force ratio shall be increased accordingly. Special which these reinforcing plates shall be deemed to consideration shall be given to cases where loads resist shall be limited by the amount of horizontal may act outside the plane of the web and so shear which they can transmit to the flanges cause bending stresses in it. For plate girders load bearing plates and their fastenings shall be carried beyond stiffeners shall be provided at all points of the points at which they become theoretically support and at points of concentrated load necessary.

Web stiffeners shall be provided as follows: Load bearing stiffeners shall be symmetrical a Load bearing stiffeners. For rolled iii All beams and girders. The radius of gyration shall be of the allowable axial stress pc for struts as given taken about the axis parallel to the web of the in Clause 30, Table 17, for a slenderness ratio beam or girder, and the working stress shall be in of 2.

The stiff portion of a bearing is that length which The ends of load bearing stiffeners shall be fitted to cannot deform appreciably in bending, and shall provide a tight and uniform bearing upon the loaded not be taken as greater than half the depth of flange unless welds designed to transmit the full beam for simply supported beams and the full reaction or load are provided between the flange and depth of the beam for beams continuous over a stiffener.

At points of support this requirement shall bearing [but see Subclause 14 d ]. Load bearing stiffeners shall not be joggled and shall be solidly packed throughout. Where horizontal supports are the sole means of providing restraint stiffeners are used in addition to vertical against torsion [see Subclause 26 a ] the moment of stiffeners they shall be as follows: Subclause 23 b ] when the thickness of the web is iii Outstand of stiffeners.

NOTE If the thickness of the web is made greater, or the spacing of the stiffeners made smaller than that required by this British Standard [see above and Subclause 23 b ], the moment of inertia of the stiffeners need not be correspondingly increased.

Intermediate vertical stiffeners may be joggled and may be single or in pairs placed one on each side of the web and shall extend from flange to flange, but need not have the ends fitted to provide a tight bearing on the flange. Et 1 As slabs spanning continuously over supports and subject to those combinations of dead and live Lateral loading on stiffener: The resistance moment of where t is the web thickness in mm and h is the the slab shall be calculated from the section outstand of stiffener in mm.

Where a tubular steel section. The spacing of filler joists a shoe adequate to transmit the load to the centre-to-centre shall not exceed n times the abutment and to stiffen the tube. Where the underside of effective length [see Subclause 31 a ] divided by the the concrete is arched between the filler joists, the appropriate radius of gyration, except that for thickness at the crown shall be not less than 50 mm.

Struts of single I section or of two e Stresses. The wire the stresses shall not exceed those given for shall be of at least 5 mm diameter and the grade 43 steel in Subclause 23 b and Clause 22 reinforcement shall be in the form of stirrups or respectively. Continuous fillers covering to the edges and outer faces of the shall extend, where possible, over three spans, and flanges, and to be supported by and attached to any joints shall be made over supports in such a longitudinal spacing bars not fewer than 4 in manner as to preserve a considerable measure of number.

989ME.vn | 989 Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd

Alternatively, the casing may be continuity. The span of filler joists, provided in either case that the same centre-to-centre of supports, shall not exceed 35 requirements of diameter, spacing and times the depth from the underside of the joist to the positioning are met. NOTE 2 For material over 40 mm thick refer to subclause 30 a. NOTE For material over 63 mm thick refer to subclause 30 a.

NOTE For material over 25 mm thick refer to subclause 30 a. The radius of gyration about its carrying the load over its rectangular cross section, other axis shall be taken as that of the uncased any cover in excess of 75 mm from the overall section. Axes are defined in Table For single angle members, Lvv is taken between lateral restraints perpendicular to either aa or bb. NOTE 3 For single angles connected by one bolt, the allowable stress is also reduced to 80 per cent of that for an axially loaded member.

Clause The calculated average stress shall not b Stanchions. The stanchions shown in the examples for 2 1. The angles shall be connected girders. Table In cases where the beam connections are eccentric with respect to the axes of the stanchion, the same 31 Effective length of compression conditions of restraint shall be deemed to apply, members provided the connections are carried across the a Struts.

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In effectively jointed and continuous stanchions bolted or rivetted40t 35t 30t the bending moments due to eccentricities of loading In calculating the radius of gyration and other at any one floor or horizontal frame level may be sectional properties the full area of the plate shall be taken as being: Where the ends of compression members and below that floor.

In cases exceeding this ratio the forces to which they are subjected. Struts composed of two main components laced and tied should, where 33 Maximum slenderness ratio of practicable, have a radius of gyration about the axis struts perpendicular to the plane of the lacing not less than the radius of gyration at right angles to that axis.

The ratio of the effective length, or of the length centre-to-centre of connections, to the appropriate As far as practicable the lacing system shall not be radius of gyration, shall not exceed the following varied throughout the length of the strut.

The lacing values: For any member carrying loads resulting from wind forces only, and provided that the deformation of such member does not cause an increase of stress, in any part of the structure, beyond the permissible stress. For members carrying the bending stress calculated Lacing bars shall be so connected that there is no from the eccentricity of loading, applied end appreciable interruption in the triangulation of the moments or lateral loading, the lacing shall be system.

The sufficient to transmit the load in the bars. Where required section of lacing bars for compression welded lacing bars overlap the main members, the members, or for tension members subject to amount of lap shall be not less than 4 times the bending, shall be determined by using the thickness of the bar or mean thickness of the flange appropriate permissible stresses, subject to the of the member to which the bars are attached, requirements in Subclauses c and d below.

The welding shall be provided For tension members under direct stress only, the at least along each side of the bar for the full length lacing bars shall be subject to the requirements of of lap. Subclauses c , d and e below.

In riveted construction, the effective length of lacing bars for the determination of the permissible stress h Tie plates. In riveted construction the minimum width of lacing bars shall be: The length of a tie plate refers to the dimension 65 mm for 22 mm diameter rivets measured along the longitudinal axis of the member.

Rolled sections or tubes of equivalent designed, in accordance with the method for strength may be used instead of flats. They shall comply with the following: Subclauses 51 c i and 54 c. For stanchions with gusseted applied moments or lateral forces, shall be designed bases, the gusset plates, angle cleats, stiffeners, according to the exact theory of elastic stability or fastenings, etc. When the In no case shall the ends of the strut be connected slab alone will distribute the load uniformly, the together with less than two rivets or bolts or their minimum thickness of a rectangular slab shall be: The rivets, bolts or welds in these connections shall When the slab will not distribute the load uniformly be sufficient to carry the shear forces and moments or when the slab is not rectangular, special if any specified for battened struts, and in no case calculations shall be made to show that the stresses shall the rivets or bolts be less than 16 mm are within the special limits.

The area of the shoulder the annular bearing area D. Design of tension members shall be sufficient to limit the stress in bearing, for the whole of the load communicated to the slab, to 41 Axial stresses in tension the maximum values given in Clause 22 and resistance to any bending communicated to the The direct stress in axial tension Pt on the net area shaft by the slab shall be taken as assisted by of section shall not exceed the value given in bearing pressures developed against the reduced Table When eccentricity of table.

Constructional details 1 Single angles connected through one leg, channel sections connected through the web and 43 Braced frames and trusses T-sections connected only through the flange. To the net sectional area of the connected leg, add a i Members of braced frames and trusses shall, where practicable, be disposed symmetrically about the sectional area of the unconnected leg the resultant line of force, and the connections shall, multiplied by: Where lug angles are used, the net sectional area b Where braced frames or trusses are supported by of the whole of the angle member shall be taken.

Chapter V, unconnected part multiplied by: Where, rule does not apply, and the member shall be however, the wind loads produce greater forces or specially designed. For computing the mean tensile stress the net sectional area of the pair shall be taken, provided the members are connected together along their length as specified in Subclause 51 e or 54 g.

The deflections obtained under these 48 Connections rules may be found to exceed those permitted by a Rivets, close tolerance bolts, high strength Clause 15 but should in any case be limited to suit friction grip bolts7 , black bolts and welding. As much of the work of fabrication as is reasonably In these rules L is the centre-to-centre distance in practicable shall be completed in the shops where millimetres of the steel principals or other support the steelwork is fabricated.

The leg or the depth of the permissible, then rivets, close tolerance bolts, high purlin taken approximately in the plane of action of strength friction grip bolts or welding shall be used.

The diameter of the purlins considered as acting together to share the load. For triangulated deemed to be capable of carrying the forces resulting from the frames, designed on the assumption of pin jointed requirements of Subclause 26 e ii. Riveting and bolting less, no increase need be made. In calculating shear of the thicker packing. In calculating the axial tensile stress in a rivet the gross area ii Packing in welded construction.

Where a [see Subclause 17 b ] shall be used, and in packing is used between two parts, the packing calculating that in a bolt or a screwed tension rod and the welds connecting it to each part shall be the net area [see Subclause 17 c ] shall be used.

BS 449-2: 1969 pdf free download

The calculated carry the load or permit the provision of adequate stress in a mild steel rivet or in a bolt of strength welds, when the load shall be transmitted grade 4. Lug angles connecting a channel-shaped member The allowable calculated stress in a bolt other than shall, as far as possible, be disposed symmetrically a high strength friction grip bolt of higher grade with respect to the section of the member.

The In no case shall fewer than two bolts or rivets be calculated bearing stress of a rivet or bolt on the used for attaching the lug angle to the gusset or parts connected by it shall not exceed the value other supporting member. Descripton of fasteners d Edge distance. In the holes case of work not exposed to weather, this may be increased to 12t. The 39 68 62 preceding subclauses a to d do not apply to high 36 62 56 strength friction grip bolts, which shall only be used 33 56 50 in conformity with BS Rivets shall conform to the requirements 24 38 32 of BS for dimensions.

Where tacking rivets are necessary to satisfy the requirements of d ii above, ii The distance between centres of two adjacent such tacking rivets, not subject to calculated stress, rivets, in a line lying in the direction of stress, shall have a pitch in line not exceeding 32 times the shall not exceed 16t or mm in tension thickness of the outside plate or mm whichever members, and 12t or mm in compression is the less.

Where the plates are exposed to the members. Rivets for general engineering purposes. Welds and welding and compression members generally, subject to the stipulations in this British Standard affecting the 53 Allowable stresses in welds design and construction of struts.

When electrodes of designations In tension members composed of two flats, angles, E R or E B H to BS are used for the channels or tees in contact back-to-back or welding of grade 43 or grade 50 steel or designation separated back-to-back by a distance not exceeding E BS , the following shall apply.

For countersunk heads i Butt welds. Butt welds shall be treated as one-half of the depth of the countersinking shall be parent metal with a thickness equal to the throat neglected in calculating the length of the rivet in thickness or a reduced throat thickness as bearing. No reduction need be made in shear. Where the grip of rivets ii Fillet welds. The allowable stress in fillet carrying calculated loads exceeds 6 times the welds, based on a thickness equal to the throat diameter of the holes, the number of rivets required thickness shall be: The dimensions shall b Steel tubes.

Wherever there is a risk of nuts becoming loose due to vibration or alternation of stresses, they shall be securely locked. For a method of calculating the length of the weld, Type A may be used whatever the ratio of the see Appendix C.

When Type A is not employed, Type B shall be used where the diameter of the branch tube is less than one-third of the diameter of the main tube, and Type C shall be used where the diameter of the branch tube is equal to or greater than one-third of the diameter of the main tube.

Intermittent butt where the connected parts are not in contact. Unsealed single V, U, J, or bevel butt welds, and other butt Chapter 5. Fabrication and erection welds which are welded from one side only and are not full penetration welds, shall have a throat 55 Inspection thickness of at least seven-eighths of the thickness of the thinner part joined.

Evidence shall be The downloadr and his authorized representatives produced to show that this throat thickness has shall have access at all reasonable times to all been achieved. For the purpose of stress calculation places where the work is being carried out, and shall and to allow for the effects of the eccentricity of the be provided, by the contractor, with all the weld metal relative to the parts joined, a nominal necessary facilities for inspection during throat thickness, not exceeding five-eighths of the construction.

Work off site c Intermittent fillet welds. The distance along an edge of a part between effective lengths of 56 Straightness consecutive intermittent fillet welds, whether the welds are in line or staggered on alternate sides of All material, before and after fabrication, shall be the edge, shall not exceed 16 times the thickness of straight unless required to be of curvilinear form, the thinner part when in compression nor 24 times and shall be free from twists.

This 57 Clearances requirement shall not be taken into account in Care shall be taken to ensure that the clearances complying with the requirements of g below and specified are worked to.

The erection clearance for Clause The they would result in the formation of rust pockets. In lap joints, the minimum amount cleats shall be not more than 3 mm at each end, but of lap shall be 4 times the thickness of the thinner where, for practical reasons, this clearance has to be part connected. Single fillet welds shall be used only increased, the seatings shall be suitably designed. Wherever practicable, fillet welds the bolts, for bolts up to 24 mm diameter and not terminating at the ends or sides of parts or members more than 3 mm greater than the diameter of the shall be returned continuously around the corners bolts, for bolts over 24 mm diameter, unless for a distance of not less than twice the size of the otherwise specified by the Engineer.

If side fillets alone are, used in end connections, the length of each side fillet should be not less than the distance between the edges, and the side fillet may be either at the edges of the member or in slots or holes. All matching holes for rivets and black bolts shall register with Cutting may be by shearing, cropping, sawing or each other so that a gauge 2 mm less in diameter machine flame cutting.

Hand flame cutting may be than the diameter of hole will pass freely through permitted, subject to the approval of the Engineer.

Finished holes shall not be dressed to a neat workman-like finish and shall more than 2 mm in diameter larger than the be free from distortion where parts are to be in diameter of the rivet or black bolt passing through metal-to-metal contact. Holes through more than one thickness over 24 mm, unless otherwise specified by the of material in pre-assembled elements shall, where Engineer. Holes for rivets or bolts shall not be possible, be drilled after the members are assembled formed by a gas cutting process.

Where this e Holes for close tolerance and barrel bolts. Preferably, parts to be permitted before assembly provided that the holes connected with close tolerance or barrel bolts shall are punched at least 2 mm less in diameter than the be firmly held together by tacking bolts or clamps required size and are reamed to the full diameter. All c Full size punching. Punching may be permitted holes not drilled through all thicknesses at one full size, but only under the following conditions:

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